Century XVI  
1500 World's longest poem, by Firdewsi, recounts how chess was invented.
1500 The Catalan Scachs d'amor chess poem written.
1500 Chess becomes a recognized pastime for Jews on the Sabbath.
1503 Arabic manuscript (F)
1503 Firdewsi completes a chess book which includes Dilaram's mate.
1509 1st Portuguese expedition off Malacca. The Javans recognized chess
1510 Vida writes his poem, Scacchia Ludus, the 1st mention of a goddess of chess.
1512 1st chess book to be published in Italy, by Damiano in Rome. 2nd extant chess book.
1512 Damiano doesn't mention medieval chess.
1512 Damiano says chess was invented by Xerxes (Axedrez is Sp for chess).
1512 Manuscript copied by Guarini at Rome was last Italian collection of medieval chess.
1513 Vida writes chess poem Scacchia Ludus.
1516 Book of the Courtier written by Castiglione. Mentions chess.
1518 2nd printing of Damiano's book, Questo libro, printed in Rome.
1520 Lucas von Leyden paints THE CHESSPLAYERS, showing Courier chess.
1522 Clergy ordered not to play chess by Vassili III.
1524 3rd printing of Damiano's book.
1525 Scacchia ludus by Vida published in Lyons; pirate version.
1525 Unauthorized version of SCACCHORUM LIBER published in Florence.
1527 Vida published SCACCHIA LUDUS, a famous poem on chess, Rome.
1528 Boi, Paolo born in Syracuse, Italy. 16th century leading player.
1530 Ruy Lopez b. in Zafra, Spain. Spanish priest & leading player.
1533 Atahualpa, inca emperor of peru, imprisoned and learns chess.
1535? Ceron, Alfonso born in Granada.
1536 Egenolff; Cessole morality by Egenolff at Franfurt mentions new chess.
1536 Egenolff publishes updated SCHACHZABEL by Mennel in Franfort.
1537 French pamphlet containing medieval chess problems; last medieval reference.
1542 Giovanni Leonardo born in Calaria. Nicknamed Il Puttino (The Boy).
1544 Damiano, Pedro died in Portugal. Wrote 1st chess book in Italian.
1548 Giulio Polerio born in Lanciano, Italy.
1549 Valladolid; Cessole's morality published at Valladolid. Last Spanish version.
1549 Boi defeats Pope Paul III in a chess match.
1550 Arabic manuscript (RAS)
1550 Valdiviesco, Don Antonio de, Bishop of Nicaragua, assassinated while playing chess in his palace at Leon.
1550 Arabic manuscript (Q)
1550 Protohierarch Sylvester denounces chess.
1550 1st chess club, organized in Italy.
1551 Cessole's morality in dutch published at Louvain the last version.
1551 Ivan IV of Russia bans chess. Civil code called Hundred Chapters.
1555 Castling is introduced.
1560 Ruy Lopez visits Rome and defeats all the players.
1560 French version of Damiano's book published in Paris by Gruget.
1561 Ruy Lopez proposes the 50-move rule to claim a draw.
1561 Last time castling was 2 separate moves.
1561 Ruy Lopez writes his book on chess. Introduces the word gambit. (Alcala, 1561)
1562 1st instructional book, Damiano translation, published in London.
1562 St Teresa, a Spanish reformer, includes chess in her writings.
1564 Damiano's book reprinted in Venice.
1565? Orazio Gianutio Della Mantia, chess author, born in Turin.
1566 Marcus Vida died. Chess poet and Bishop of Alba.
1569 Damianio's book reprinted in English.
1570 Alessandro Salvio b. Neapolitan author. Best analyst of his time.
1570? Gianutto della Mantia, Horatio born in Italy. Author of Italian chess book.
1571 Arabic manuscript (S)
1572 Ruy lopez defeats several eminent players in Rome.
1573.07.12 Carrera, Pietro born in Militello, Sicily. Player and author.
1574 1st documented chess competion, played in Madrid.
1574 Boi and Leonardo beat Lopez and Ceron in presence of King Phillip II.
1574 Polerio records the important opening variations of his time.
1575 Leonardo beats Ruy Lopez in Madrid.
1575 Arabic manuscript (R)
1575 After the Plaque of Cremona, all games except chess were banned.
1575.08.22 King of Spain writes letter of recommendation for Boi.
1576 Boi taken prisoner, but wins his freedom playing chess.
1579 Selenus, Gustavus born.
1579 Sukaikir is the last write on the older muslim game of chess.
1579.04.10 August der Jungere, Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg (Gustavus Selenus) born in Dannenberg, Germany.
1580 Ruy lopez died.
1580 Catherine de Medici of France is a keen chess player.
1581 Letter from Poland says that Russians are strong players.
1581 Wilcox writes A Glasse for Gamesters, defending chess.
1583 Italian lawyer recommends notifying player when queen is attacked.
1583 Actius writes that chess is a game of skill, not gambling.
1584 Ivan the Terrible dies while starting a game of chess.
1584 Lopez's book translated into Italian by Tarsia and published in Venice.
1584 Polerio writes about Lopez, Boi, and Leonardo from Madrid.
1586 Leonardo poisoned.
1587 Japanese chess (shogi) played
1590 Polerio's manuscript mentions Caro Kann and Greco Counter Gambit.
1590 Polerio plays the 1st recorded King's Gambit.
1590 Russian book on regulations forbade chess in Russia.
1594 Poleriop dedicates chess treatise to duke of Sora.
1597 1st English version of Vida's Scacchia ludus.
1597 Book published by Gianutio dealing with openings and problems. Published in Turin.
1598 James VI of Scotland writes Basilikon Doron and mentions chess.
1598 Boi, Paolo poisoned in Naples, Italy and died.